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CFD Analysis of Underground Car Park


Underground car parks are an integral part of urban infrastructure now days, this provided convenient parking solutions in congested areas and specially in highly living cost area where land area for parking is limited. However, ensuring proper airflow and ventilation in these enclosed spaces is crucial for maintaining air quality, removing pollutants, and ensuring the safety and comfort of users. The whole idea is to create breathable air for children, teenagers and old age peoples. In this case study, we explore how CFD Analysis of underground car park was employed to optimize the airflow and ventilation system of an underground car park, resulting in improved air quality and enhanced user experience.


The objective of this study was to evaluate the existing airflow and ventilation system of an underground car park and propose design modifications to enhance air circulation and Carbon Monoxide( CO ) pollutant dispersion. The CFD analysis aimed to identify potential areas of stagnant air, optimize the placement of jet fan, axial fan, exhaust and supply vents, and assess the effectiveness of the ventilation system.

Results and Conclusion

The CFD analysis revealed several insights and recommendations for enhancing the airflow and ventilation system of the underground car park. Key findings included:

1. Identification of stagnant air zones: The simulation helped identify areas with poor airflow and stagnant air pockets, which were associated with inadequate ventilation.

2. Optimization of exhaust and supply vents: The positioning and size of exhaust and supply vents, jet fans , axial fans were modified based on the simulation results to ensure better air circulation, pollutant extraction, and fresh air supply.

3. Evaluation of air quality and thermal comfort: The simulation results enabled the assessment of pollutant dispersion and ensuring compliance with air quality standards and enhancing occupant comfort.

4. Validation of design modifications: The proposed design modifications, including changes to vent locations and sizes, were validated through CFD simulations to demonstrate their effectiveness in improving airflow and ventilation efficiency. The overall CO concentration through simulation is drop down form 40 ppm to 17 ppm.

By implementing the recommended design modifications based on the CFD analysis, the underground car park witnessed significant improvements in airflow, pollutant dispersion, and thermal comfort. The optimized ventilation system not only enhanced air quality but also contributed to the overall safety and user experience within the car park.

To visualize flow insights of your underground car park, contact us on info(at) 


Most frequent questions and answers

The spaces which lies below the ground level and does not have any scope for natural ventilations.

Since this space is lies below the ground level and do not have any natural incoming flow, the forced ventilation is required to supply fresh airflow. In addition to that, moving vehicle emits toxic flue gases along with CO (carbon monoxide) which is harmful for human to breath. Therefore this flue gases need to be get replace with incoming fresh airflow.

CFD simulation help HVAC and fire/safety Engineers to understand the airflow and gives the information about toxic gases and their concentration in the spaces. This helps to HVAC engineer to modify and optimize the airflow strategy for the ventilation.

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CFD Consultants India a leading provider of CFD simulation consultation and services. We use finite volume computation technique to predict the flow behavior using various commercial CFD software’s.  At CFD Consultants India, we understand the importance of accurate and reliable CFD simulations in the design and development process. With years of experience and expertise in the field, we offer customized solutions to meet your specific requirements and help you achieve your goals.

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